Blog Post

What is electric car battery swap tech, and why is it important?

Stay on Top of Enterprise Technology Trends

Get updates impacting your industry from our GigaOm Research Community
Join the Community!

Better Place went bankrupt trying to build out the idea; Tesla just unveiled the technology to a live audience. We’re talking about a battery swapping system for an electric car, which isn’t all that technically complicated, but which is a newish concept in the automotive industry.

What is it?

Quite simply, a battery swapping station is a place that an electric car can drive over and an automatic (or possibly even manual) system can open up the bottom of the electric car, remove the depleted battery, and insert a newly fully charged battery in its place. Picture it as robot mechanics giving an electric car a fresh battery.

PHOTOS: Better Place's Battery Swap StationSome electric car makers and tech companies want this option because it is the only super-fast way that an electric car can be charged and thus compete with gasoline cars. To implement this technology the car itself has to be designed to be able to be opened up with a chamber on the bottom, and by swiftly taking off the bolts underneath the car. Tesla CEO Elon Musk said during the launch event that Tesla is using the same machines that it uses in the factory for its swapping stations to swiftly torque the bolts on the underside of the car.

Fast charging stations like the ones that Tesla is deploying can charge an electric car in around 30 minutes, which is obviously considerably longer than it would take to pump gas. A regular electric car charger can take 8 or even 12 hours to fully charge. The range that currently available electric cars can provide is between 100 to 300 miles (at max) — if the range ever gets substantially larger, the constraints on charging become less of a problem, and battery swapping becomes less important.

Who thought of the idea?

Startup Better Place developed this technology several years ago to build out its electric car charging infrastructure. Better Place founder Shai Agassi was a big proponent of battery swapping, and continues to be, even after leaving the company late last year. Unfortunately poor timing, execution (or both) led to Better Place filing for bankruptcy this year.

PHOTOS: Better Place's Battery Swap StationBack when Better Place was developing this technology, Musk was also really interested in battery swapping tech. I know because I asked him about it back then. While most of the big auto companies were ignoring Better Place and battery swapping, Musk was keeping an eye on the tech (and perhaps even had a hand in the original battery swapping idea). That’s why when Tesla built the Model S, they made sure that the battery could be swapped out, in case one day they decided that they wanted to implement it.

Why does Tesla want to do battery swapping now?

Tesla has decided now is the time to unveil its battery swapping plans. What Tesla has going for it is a super hot car that’s become a symbol of luxury for the progressive, liberal, wealthy elite. What Tesla has against it is the nascent stage of the electric vehicle industry and the lack of electric vehicle infrastructure out there. Range anxiety is a very real thing when there’s only a small amount of chargers out there and most of those chargers take a long time to charge the battery.

Tesla Model S battery
Tesla Model S battery

Tesla has to build out electric car infrastructure simply as a way to grow the market for its electric cars. It’s like if Apple launched the iPhone in the very early days of cell phones — it would have to build out some of the cellular networks, too, to get the iPhone experience to work the way they wanted it to in such a nascent environment.

The big question I have is how will Tesla implement battery swapping when most of its customers own their entire car, including the battery, outright. Battery swapping sounded like a good idea for Better Place, because Better Place was offering electricity and battery charging as a service and owned the batteries. If a company owns the battery first, the customer probably won’t care if the battery is swapped in and out (older batteries have considerably less value than newer batteries). Perhaps that’s why Tesla wanted to launch the battery swap service soon after its first wave of Model S have been delivered (the oldest Model S cars and accompanying batteries are only a year old), and not later on after the cars have aged more.

At the same time, Tesla expects that it’ll have a good deal of leases, which it recently launched, for the Model S. Musk has said that in 2014 he expects “leasing will be a big factor” in the U.S., and will be a moderate part of revenue in 2013 in Europe.

What are the hurdles for battery swapping?

For Better Place the hurdles to implementing battery swapping infrastructure lay in convincing auto makers to enable their car batteries to be swapped out. Better Place only offered one lackluster car from Renault when it launched in Israel.

COP15Day4-Fluence2But for Tesla, which is an automaker first and foremost, they’ve already got some hot cars that have swappable batteries. Tesla is also building out its infrastructure in a more proprietary manner — only Model S cars can charge at its Superchargers — so it’s not necessarily worried about working with other automakers on making their cars work with Tesla infrastructure.

The bigger hurdle for Tesla is implementing the battery swapping service so that customers like it and so that it adds value financially for both Tesla and the customer. Because electric cars are at an early stage, the financing — and depreciation of the batteries — isn’t necessarily a known quantity yet. Tesla’s other hurdle is also just maintaining its the sexiness of its cars and brands since you need to have an in-demand product and a growing mass of customers if you’re going to build out a proprietary next work like this.

20 Responses to “What is electric car battery swap tech, and why is it important?”

  1. I think swapping is an absolute inevitability if we are to go full electric, unless we are able to figure out a way to charge batteries faster than we can swap them, and let’s face it, we’re not going to be able to do that. So, swapping IS the way of the future because it will be the most efficient and convenient way for the consumer, regardless of how long batteries last or how much they cost.

    This concept is not hard to digest. It’s hardly different than how we use fuel now. All cars are built within standards to accommodate the fueling process at any gas station. The gas is not a part of the car, and is distributed and sold separately. The car company specializes in making the car, and the gas companies do their respective jobs. They all work together to make the system work. Picture a company that delivers fuel in the form of swappable batteries instead of liquid fuel. They charge the batteries, and swap them for people, and charge the consumer for that service. To do that, they must source out their batteries and have enough of them to be swapping while charging. So, it’s in their best interest to buy the best batteries for the job. If they do it right, they can be charging from the grid overnight, relieving the grid of peak loads, and charging their batteries for less cost, and also use excess power to feed the grid during peak times at a profit.

    This concept is win win X 3. The consumer wins because he doesn’t have to pay full price for the battery when purchasing an electric car. He just pays as he goes. The car companies win because they can focus on what they do best. The battery companies win because they finally get the demand that they have been preparing for (and going bankrupt while they wait). Electrical grid wins because this could create a great way to regulate and maximize usage and efficiency of electricity. New entrepreneurs win because this opens up a vast market of swap stations and battery production, as well as green energy production. Even the gas companies can win if they chose to be a part of it.

    The way I see it, anyone who doesn’t get on board, will be left behind. Tesla may be the first, and good on them for that, but eventually I see all car companies doing this in a way that is adaptable to all other car companies… or perishing like 8 track players.

  2. i would expect the best standard battery swapping arrangement to be from overhead instead of from underneath.

    the battery would have an eye or eyes on top that would mate to a hook and cable device to pull the batt out of the car from an accessible compartment, probably between the rear-most seat and the trunk. after lowering the fresh batt onto simple electrical contact clips, the securing hardware is re-locked, cover closed, DONE. let gravity do the work.

    should be easy to standardize and make crash worthy. different sizes or multiple batts would provide more range or be better for larger vehicles

  3. Actually, Better Place didn’t think up the idea of battery swapping in EV’s. That idea goes back at least 96 years to 1917 when Milburn Light Electric cars were fitted with battery packs on wheels that could be swapped in less than 5 minutes. In 1917, one EV charging garage in Chicago also offered Milburns for sale without the battery packs, offering instead a battery exchange system: . Guess you could say they were 100 years ahead of time… – Myles Twete, Portland, Or.

  4. Tinomen

    Sadly I don’t think this will ever be acceptable use due to the competing nature of the industry. Each car manufacturer will insist on a proprietary battery shape and size and then expect the consumer to be on a monthly contract to their battery stations. Imagine now that if you didn’t have the choice of either the Shell, Arco or Costco gas, but in order to fill up you need to go to a Ford, Toyota or GM station depending on who you bought your car from.

  5. focher

    An electric range of 100 miles in between access to a charger covers the vast majority of the driving population. Tesla has been smart to, one-by-one, take away the excuses people use to claim electric cars aren’t viable choices. The best luxury car in the world is now a pure electric, and range anxiety is disappearing as a concern.

    The only question is whether the other car manufacturers will step up their game before Tesla moves down the food chain.

  6. SV_ASC

    Battery swapping for electric cars is a smart idea, but we still designing the swapping process to adapt with the existing model of the car ,while we have to change the car design substantially to adapt to the swapping process , the process should not take more than minutes where the car pass over a line then the driver press a safety button which release the dried up battery then the line move the car forward where a charged battery is pushed up and then the safety clamps in the car close holding the precious gift , and we should for example think about cylindrical battery which can be 2 or more which can inter through a tube in car front and exit from car back this will make the swapping process easier and time saving

    • At this time, Tesla is already at 93-96 seconds for the swap…. They say this design can (and will) get somewhat faster. I’m not sure how much faster than that you want, but it’s already fairly elegant.

  7. Tim Devine

    I was at the event. It didn’t take 30 minutes to swap it out (as one poster said). It took 2 minutes. Less than a fill up with petrol. The thing about Musk is he doesn’t tell you what he’s going to do, he tells you what he’s just done. If Tesla owns the electric stations, they will own the early road for EVs. This is something the likes of ExxonMobil should have been rolling out two years ago. Yet the black gold industry talks about changing to the new energy order, but in actuality, they are more like a cat batting around a ball of yard. All talk and no action.

    This is Tesla (and other forward thinkers) market opportunity and it’s on our doorstep now.

    Congrats to Elon for figuring it out and taking the risk – again.

  8. Shiggity

    If you look at where the supercharger locations are and where the battery swap locations will be, it forms a smart grid.

    Supercharger stations = Solar Panels + Cars

    Battery Swap = Battery storage capacity + Cars

    That’s the thing about a shifting paradigm, most people won’t notice it until half the country drives EVs and no longer uses the conventional grid. It’s coming, faster than you think.

  9. Franz Villaman

    Interesting! But, there’s something I don’t understand in the term swap (possible because English is not my native language). By swapping, I understand to exchange one thing for another. If so, why would you use the term “charge” the battery at Tesla Swapping stations?
    Why not use change? Since is a swap, what one should get is a charged battery similar to yours, in exchange for the dried up. Don’t you agree?

    Maybe the swapping would not take as much as 30 min…

  10. Seems like you have new job at Tesla! Why don’t discuss what else is happening in electric car world, by vendors such as GM, BMW, etc… Or you have decided on your own they are all dumb XXX, Or GigaOm has deal to Tesla’s PR team!! Whats Up !

  11. “only” 100-300 miles? Gasoline-powered passenger cars in the U.S. are mandated to get about 300 miles per tank, no more. That’s how U.S. gas tanks are sized.

  12. Mancuso

    Sure, works great on a factory floor. How about swapping batteries on a car dripping from a rainstorm, caked with snow and ice, or through a muddy construction zone? Funny how the “real world” experience of the traditional car companies gets thrown out when talking auto tech. I’m also looking at you Google self-driving cars….

  13. John B

    Good luck getting multiple vendors, or even multiple models from the same vendor to agree on a battery standard.

    And then if you do, you’ve effectively halted battery technology innovation, because there will be no way to profit from inventing a better battery.

  14. Battery swapping for electric cars is a great idea, but by no means a new one. It was proposed and demonstrated back in 1974 by researchers at, if I recall correctly, Purdue University.

    • The idea of swapping batteries has been around…. since batteries… Every flashlight, for example, offers this feature. Still, it’s pretty cool in the Tesla.

    • It is new, because no one before has tried to implement it on this scale.

      So it’s not the idea, it’s the actual effort to go to large scale implementation that is the story.