What WORA can tell us about the future of the cloud


Sun Microsystems’ slogan, “Write once, run anywhere,” (WORA) was hot stuff in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Today, a new technology wave is forming, “Deploy once, scale anywhere,” or DOSA. So why should we care about WORA now? By understanding the evolution of Java and the emergence of WORA, we may discover insights into how the various cloud computing paradigms will evolve in the coming years.

As an enterprise architect with multiple large Java and cloud deployments, I have been intimately involved in both technology waves. Based on this experience, I can see the parallels and I believe that the various cloud platforms will ultimately provide the equivalent of the Java virtual machine (JVM) and create infrastructure independence that will enable new architectures.

As cloud computing platforms start to mature and the seeds of interoperability begin to sprout, the days of DOSA are not far away. The Eucalyptus-AWS API compatibility deal is one way this could be accomplished. Another might be the ubiquitous availability of OpenStack-enabled cloud services from such providers as HP, RackSpace and AT&T. VMWare’s recent acquisition of DynamicOps also points in this direction. These are just some of the developments that are happening every day. DOSA looks even nearer with PaaS technologies, such as CloudFoundry and OpenShift, providing elastic application containers the same way that Java promised ubiquitous availability of Java virtual machines 15 years ago. Clearly, key industry players are starting to get ready.

My bet is that cloud computing’s chaotic landscape (especially IaaS and PaaS) will evolve into a more nuanced DOSA message. Enterprise IT will have the ability to shrink and surge based on open and flexible infrastructure platforms. These infrastructure platforms will largely consist of commodity hardware and smart software that ensure interoperability across service providers.

Here are three key WORA and DOSA parallels:

1. New way of running apps 

Just as organizations in the late ’90s struggled with how to build new applications for the Internet and Web era, companies today are looking for new ways to build Web-scale systems. And just as Java was seen as the new way of building applications that could be deployed on any operating system, the next generation of cloud apps can be dynamically deployed on any cloud platform. Driven by the explosion of mobile devices and resource rich apps, companies are now moving away from expensive specialized servers to a more commodity based scale-out model. A logical extension of these scale-out models is the ability to easily pick and choose infrastructure service providers and thereby reduce vendor lock-in.

2. The surge of open systems continues

The idea that software should be open without the need to pay huge licensing fees really took off during the mid-1990s, fueling both Java and Linux. This wave is now percolating into the infrastructure space. The old big box enterprise data centers with hundreds of millions of dollars of expensive gear from the “old” IT providers must now move to an open and interoperable model with usage based pricing.

3. Infrastructure standardization

The WORA phenomenon spawned a thirst for standardization and led to the emergence of the Java ecosystem. Similarly, cloud computing has catalyzed a massive effort to modernize and standardize IT infrastructure technologies. This will ultimately enable interoperability between internal and external cloud services, including the whole suite of systems and software — security, applications, hardware, virtualization software, monitoring and management.

So who are going to be the DOSA enablers? This is an emerging space, but a couple of tiny specks are starting to appear on the horizon, e.g. Gartner has been talking a lot about cloud brokers. And many interesting models are starting to emerge:

  • Companies such as Jamcracker and Virtustream are innovating in the cloud broker space.
  • Players in the content delivery network and telco arenas are starting to pivot and emerge as cloud-interconnectors. For example, Akamai’s Global Traffic Manager (GTM) allows organizations to automatically direct traffic between work load centers.
  • Existing cloud service providers like Microsoft Azure are beginning to differentiate by exploring interoperability across platforms.

The ability to seamlessly move workloads among various centers in a hybrid cloud configuration is an emerging architectural blueprint. “Deploy once, scale anywhere” shifts the power back into the hands of the enterprise that is looking to innovate, move quickly and not get locked into expensive proprietary data centers.

Although Sun invented Java, the biggest beneficiary ended up being IBM. I wonder who the emerging DOSA winners are going to be?

Gaurav Pal (G.P.) is the director of strategic programs at Smartronix, Inc. As an entrepreneur and innovator, G.P. has developed and supported large enterprise systems. He has broad domain expertise in the public sector, healthcare and financial services. The views expressed here are personal and do not necessarily reflect those of any company with which he is or has been affiliated.

Image courtesy of Flickr user slopjop


Joseph Gromm

I think the author is dead-on with the analogy, and it’s a fairly simple (and insightful) analogy. Non-standard cloud ‘OS’ layers, such as Amazon, OpenStack, VMWare, need a standard abstraction layer that unites them; just as non-standard OSes needed an abstraction layer that could run standard binaries.


Thanks for reading the article. The intent is to predict the evolution of IAAS and PAAS (yes another set of buzzwords and acronyms :)) by using the Write Once Scale Anywhere (WORA) analogy.

The analogy has two facets:
1) back in the mid-late nineties Java was struggling to find a place in Corporate IT till the value proposition was articulated i.e. WORA. Given that IAAS and PAAS are fairly new, there is no unifying theme on why to adopt these technologies in large Corporate IT. DOSA is that theme.

2) Just as WORA was compelling to Organizations by providing a ubiquitous execution platform i.e. the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Similarly the availability of multiple IAAS/PAAS platforms can provide a “Cloud VM” that will allow applications to deployed irrespective of the service provider/data center.

Thanks again,

Sebastien LORBER

I totally agree and i think it will be sooner than we think.

Think about it:
– WORA permits to deploy easily the same application on another platform.
– DOSA permits to deploy easily the same application on another cloud provider

WORA is a bit geeky. The top management doesn’t care so much of what kind of hardware you use.

DOSA permits to change directly the pricing model of your application, and that speaks a lot to the top management.


Sebastien – thanks for your perspective. Clearly, how DOSA will come about is up for grabs. The ability for Corporate IT to realize price savings is dependent on how easy it is to make the switch. All of us know how hard this truly is e.g. even WORA became WOTE (Write Once Test Everywhere) :).

Sunil Beta

Acronyms often cause dissociation of context or obscurity. In this case ‘Deploy Once Scale Anywhere’ is exactly that. Dosa is a dish in South India. ‘Write Once Run Anywhere’ which I am quite familiar with was hidden from me till I read it again through the article. The reason is acronyms start out as acronyms and then become phonemes such as Scuzzy (SCSI), where the pronunciation obscures it in verbal conversation. Otherwise I concur with the prior comment here – as I find it difficult to connect. To me the JVM stack has evolved and is still inside the cloud. I am not sure Deploy Once Scale Anywhere is out there, but I concur that everyone is in the process of getting it ready. Disparity in cloud API alone would keep this away – just like POSIX standardization didn’t help UNIX, the cloud would probably need standardization before that ‘Deploy Once Scale Anywhere’ is realized.

Sebastien LORBER

Sunil Beta have you checked the CloundFoundry project of VMWare? It provides an abstraction on top of cloud providers like Amazon, vSphere, OpenStack…

Disparity in cloud api is not a problem if you have a widely supported abstraction over it. Perhaps some cloud features (such as proprietary amazon services) won’t be available but at less reducing the vendor lock-in is not a bad idea

velvel swapnel

Wow…really having difficulty making sense of this article. Relating two buzz words/ acronyms that have hardly anything in common and then lumping in terms such as cloud broker etc.. Not sure what the author is trying to convey here.

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