It’s Not Twitter or Facebook, It’s the Power of the Network


Just as it was during the recent uprisings in Tunisia, the role of social media in the recent upheaval in Egypt has been the subject of much debate since the unrest began on Thursday. Daily Show host Jon Stewart on Friday poked fun at the idea that Twitter might have played a key part in the demonstrations, and there are many observers who share his skepticism. The real trigger for the uprisings, they argue, is simply the frustration of the oppressed Egyptian people — which is undoubtedly true. But it also seems clear that social media has played a key role in getting the word out, and in helping organizers plan their protests. In the end, it’s not about Twitter or Facebook: it’s about the power of real-time networked communication.

Foreign Policy magazine columnist Evgeny Morozov has argued that Twitter and Facebook should not be credited with playing any kind of critical role in Tunisia, and suggested that doing so is a sign of the “cyber-utopianism” that many social-media advocates suffer from: that is, the belief that the Internet is unambiguously good, or that the use of Twitter or Facebook can somehow magically free a repressed society from its shackles. Morozov, who has written an entire book about this idea called Net Delusion, made the point in his blog post after the Tunisian uprising that while social media might have been used in some way during the events, tools like Twitter and Facebook did not play a crucial role — that is, the revolution would have happened with or without them.

Zeynep Tufekci, a professor of sociology who has also looked at this issue, described in a post following the revolution in Tunisia how professional observers distinguish between what she called “material,” “efficient” and “final” causes — in other words, things that are required in order to produce a certain outcome, and things that are nice to have but are not a requirement. Tufekci argues that social media was a crucial factor in Tunisia, while Jillian York of Global Voices Online believes that social media tools are useful, but not necessary. Ethan Zuckerman, one of the founders of Global Voices Online, has also written about how the uprisings in both Tunisia and in Egypt have more to do with decades of poverty and repressive dictatorships than they do with social media.

But is anyone really arguing that Twitter and Facebook caused the revolutions in Tunisia or Egypt, or even the earlier public uprisings in Moldova or Iran for that matter? Maybe cyber-utopians somewhere are doing this, but I haven’t seen or heard of any. The argument I have tried to make is simply that they and other social media tools can be incredibly powerful, both for spreading the word — which can give moral or emotional support to others in a country, as well as generating external support — as well as for organizational purposes, thanks to the power of the network. As Jared Cohen of Google Ideas put it, social media may not be a cause, but it can be a powerful “accelerant.”

Did Twitter or Facebook cause the Tunisian revolt? No. But they did spread the news, and many Tunisian revolutionaries gave them a lot of credit for helping with the process. Did Twitter cause the revolts in Egypt? No. But they did help activists such as WikiLeaks supporter Jacob Appelbaum (known on Twitter as @ioerror) and others as they organized the dialup and satellite phone connections that created an ad-hoc Internet after Egypt turned the real one off — which, of course, it did in large part to try and prevent demonstrators from using Internet-based tools to foment unrest. As Cory Doctorow noted in his review of Evgeny Morozov’s book, even if Twitter and Facebook are just used to replace the process of stapling pieces of paper to telephone poles and sending out hundreds of emails, they are still a huge benefit to social activism of all kinds.

But open-network advocate Dave Winer made the key point: it’s the Internet that is the really powerful tool here, not any of the specific services such as Twitter and Facebook that run on top of it, which Winer compares to brands like NBC. They have power because lots of people use them, and — in the case of Twitter — because they have open protocols so that apps can still access the network even when the company’s website is taken down by repressive governments (athough they didn’t mention Egypt or Tunisia by name, Twitter co-founder Biz Stone and general counsel Alexander Macgillivray wrote a post about the company’s desire to “keep the information flowing).

In the end, the real weapon is the power of networked communication itself. In previous revolutions it was the fax, or the pamphlet, or the cellphone — now it is SMS and Twitter and Facebook. Obviously none of these things cause revolutions, but to ignore or downplay their growing importance is also a mistake.

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Post and thumbnail courtesy of Flickr user Ahmad Kavousian



Some are suggesting that the people’s rage is a tool in the hands of the new electronic and digital corporate state. Its various channels, eddies and pools, regardless of type, can be directed toward all sorts of mischief and profit. Left or right, the angry throngs on both sides can be managed and directed. They can be sent chasing various injustices, denouncing evil characters on Wall Street, Times Square bombers, BP executives, or whatever, worked up into slobbering outrage over Sarah Palin, and thus kept divided and working against each other for the benefit of last gasp capitalism.

It could also just be politics has driven the Egyptian populace to the brink of insanity. Or over it in this case.

Lot’s of things to discuss that’s obvious.


people have always revolted…i cant stand when people make the argument that twitter/facebook cause crap like this. BUT, you do make a great point, they are certainly playing a distinct role.


They (OL social media) surely didn’t cause this inferno of revolt, but they were primer, fuel, and fodder to the present flame.
I just hope for the people’s sake, and the government’s alike, that things work out, get better, and change.
Thanks for the keen insight


I’d like to hear my old professors who taught protest and rebellion now that technology has changed the speed of social networking, dissent included. Great post.


Today’s internet culture, has created a loud voice of the people.

My belief is that we will see these kind of revolutions being triggered in other parts of the world as well, where no uprisings have been seen till date.

William Mougayar

It’s impossible to hide from the truth now. Egypt now…other countries will follow.
Social media and the Internet have helped amplify the aspirations of the Egyptian people, because the rest of the world has echoed their concerns and multiplied it even more.


The midnight ride of Paul Revere = real time communication. “One if by land, two if by sea.” Every revolution needs real time communication. Only the tools have changed.

Tom Smith

Thank GOD someone is finally making some sense. I didn’t even read the entire article but just the fact someone finally said it wasn’t PRODUCT A or PRODUCT B it was the PROCESS. Talking about Facebook or Twitter as if they are causative factors in such matters is like claiming Mountain Bell versus AT&T (or another phone carrier) was the cause of a war because the telephone enabled people to talk without being face to face. Or that the specific breed of carrier pigeon was the cause (or the resolver) of the American civil way. Communication HAPPENS one way or another, the tool is indifferent and irrelevant to the process, the subject matter and root causes – the tools are just participants in the process of the communication (network).

Talk about overblown egos and self absorption those associated with social media can get a little out of hand. If they would only spend as much energy looking at solving the true underlying problems /causes of civil unrest — instead of beating their chest about being the most vocal and involved participant – we’d have a more peaceful world to live in.


Wasn’t television a key factor in helping Kennedy beat Nixon during that now famous first televised debate? It would seem to me that Twitter or Facebook can have similar impact in shaping history…

Pat Germelman

My post is so simple and naive in comparison but the thread of truth is the same, identical in fact. I’d be honored if you’d let me post this here if for no other reason than to share my support with you as loudly as I know how. Thank you for your powerful words.

David Lin

I think the online network such as Twitter or Facebook or mobile phones did play a role in the Egyptian protests, but later on as the crowds managed to get together by such online connections, the real life actions and connections began to take effect without too much help of the online tools. Anyway, the government has tried to shut down Internet and mobile phone lines to deter the protesters connection online.


I think this is a bit overstated though. While no one is attributing absolute determinism to Twitter and social media, the amount of coverage of the role of Twitter and Facebook when compared to the amount of coverage given to the years-in-the-making social conditions responsible for the event itself is disproportionate. The typical failure of institutional mass media outlets is the same failure we see here. Context for the events is vastly overshadowed by the latest bells and whistles that catch the American people’s attention. We WANT to talk about the technology that ties us to the events in Egypt, but we really NEED to listen to the historical factors responsible for bringing us to this point.

Antonio Santos

‎”In the past to execute a conspiracy you needed to go underground, today you go to social media.”


As an Iranian who has followed post-election events, I think that these social media play a key role. We can say that there are two sides of it. One would be before events which is informing people who have problem to get neutral information and bypass governmental filtering.
The second side is the one which make a lot of noise in the west.
I would suggest to western countries that they should provide satellite internet to those countries where access to uncensored internet is not possible.


I think is a much more suitable tool for spreading such news, because of it’s distributed nature (unlike Twitter). After the Wikileaks case, we all learned that ISPs may be too obedient to government pressures, so a distributed system is a must.

Facebook has one important advantage: the big number of non-technical users. Beyond that, its notoriously security and privacy issues makes it more of a pro-government tool (via secret services) than a pro-revolutionary one.


Facebook and Twitter? For anyone to limit the effect of the Internet to two applications doesn’t understand the evolution of the Internet and the many applications and services available. There was IRQ, ICQ, Messenger, PowWow, and a myriad of programs that enabled people to correspond and chat. Hotmail, Gmail and many email applications and then there are the blogs, web sites and straight FTP capabilities.

Media now inhabits the net from all broadcast sources and News media. Facebook and Twitter are social networking darlings right now but are by no means the end-all and be-all of communications. Skype allows face to face contact and phones now carry many of the same applications and capabilities.

We are past the Industrial revolution and now in the Communications Evolution. The biggest threat to civilization’s progress is the control of the internet by organizations to enable the control of information. Fox News and Rupert Murdock are the epitome of information control.

The internet service providers are working hard to control the internet and if they succeed our world would collapse into ignorance of the views those in our country and the world.

What would you do if the internet was not accessible to everyone young or old – rich or poor. Those who are afraid of the net or refuse to take advantage of it’s utility are ok in my book but those who do rely on the internet to make their lives easier and more fruitful must understand the Internet is more that two social networks.

~Protect the Net~


Twitter and facebook are only used to alert the slacktivists so that they can change their profile pic appropriately. Tons of americans will think they helped by retweeting. Just like 10 years ago they helped by putting a yellow ribbon magnet on their car.

The real communication between important people in this revolution is done through phone calls and sms, and email and IM. Services that are reliable (twitter isn’t) and trustworthy(facebook isn’t).

Tech journalists are the worst part in this. Every day they have to make facebook and twitter seem important and meaningful so that they can get page views.


You are correct. In fact, I would contend that one reason reporters ( I am not speaking of tech reporters covering that angle, but the reporter covering the political event) that cover uprisings like this love twitter and facebook, is that they are lazy and social media allows them to get quotes and soudbytes without having to get out there and do the “man on the street” type interviews. These cable news networks also love it because they get tons of quotes and soundbytes without having to send more reporters into the field. It provides “breaking news” infotainment without spending much money.


While I agree that real-time communications with a world-wide reach can help give “power to the people”, I sure hope that is what the case is in Egypt. Unfortunately, I think the Mubarak dictatorial regime will be replaced by an islamic extremist dictatorship that will definitely not give power to the people. That is at least a possibility. So while social media can be great for creating a flash mob in a mall or in a country, it does not necessarily mean the end result will be freedom for the people.

Mathew Ingram

That’s a good point, Doug — these kinds of events, with or without Twitter and Facebook, don’t guarantee that such revolutions will be successful by any means.


“Unfortunately, I think the Mubarak dictatorial regime will be replaced by an islamic extremist dictatorship that will definitely not give power to the people.”
– This is not going to happen, and anyway betrays a total lack of understanding of what is happening in Egypt. The only way that democracy will be thwarted is if the US unconditionally backs Suleiman (who has strong ties to CIA and Pentagon). The only reason democracy has been stifled for so long is because of US support for thugs like Mobarak (1.3 billion/yr military aid). It would have nothing to do with the Muslim Brotherhood. The US State Dept doesn’t want democracy any more than radical Islamists do, they want USEFUL regimes which will cooperate.

Jay Rosen is right, this whole debate is sterile. Nobody has ever stated that social media is RESPONSIBLE for any revolutions, the problem is journalists and US technocrats looking for easy-to-memorize slogans for sound bites and newspaper headlines. Media are only tools, impetus for revolution comes from people, nobody is disputing that. The right questions to ask is who has access to and control over the tools, and who knows how to use them better in terms of surveillance and encryption – governments or citizens? Asking whether or not Twitter/Facebook are “responsible” for revolutions is asking a meaningless question. In the end it always come down to who has the guns, and how much citizens are willing to sacrifice to bring change.

Doctorow and Dave Parry have written very thoughtful essays on this.


@Rob: I don’t disagree with your points about what could thwart democracy in Egypt and I certainly am pulling for that outcome and an end to Mubarak and all like him, but there IS a possibility that in the end this could end up an islamic extremist state. All I was saying is the possibility existed. May main point was that social media technology does not guarantee total freedom as an outcome. I read the article you linked to and it seems to agree with my point. I would recommend others read it.


Even if the upcoming power in Egypt will remain secular (which is a possibility) the corruption will be even more rampant than it is right now as the new power and subsequent governments will fill their pockets as fast as they come into power. The legal system will not be subdued by force like it is now but bought with hard cash (which is probably worse) and no media scandals will make it go away.
Just look at the emerging Eastern European democracies. In more than 20 years after the Berlin Wall fell there’s little progress showing and the steps taken towards having corruption eradicated and a legal system that actually works are timid at best.


and what IS the network in “networked communications” and why is it so powerful?

it is the out-picturing in the 3d world of a developing mind beginning to cognize and express its innate connection to collective consciousness.

in short, it is natural, a function of the nature of reality.

it will grow. and grow.

Jay Rosen

I don’t know, Mathew. I think we’re up against something we don’t understand very well. You write:

“But is anyone really arguing that Twitter and Facebook caused the revolutions in Tunisia or Egypt, or even the earlier public uprisings in Moldova or Iran for that matter? Maybe cyber-utopians somewhere are doing this, but I haven’t seen or heard of any.”

Notice that you don’t get many answers when you ask that question. I wrote to Spencer Ackerman of Wired (whom I know a little) asking the same thing about…

and I didn’t get any answer. (I defy you to figure out who’s being corrected when the Wired writer says, “The dozen or more protesters that self-immolated in Egypt didn’t do it for the tweets.” LIke we thought they did?)

There is something about arguing against the cyber-utopian (or the Twitter-topples-dictators) thesis that satisfies writers and readers, regardless of whether anyone buys the thesis, and there is something about that thesis that convinces writers and readers that it’s widely bought, despite the embarrassing difficulty of finding actual buyers. That’s why the posts come without links and quotes. The authors somehow know they don’t need them. Conventions of the genre are that here you get to say, “It’s More Than Twitter!” without showing that anyone said it was only Twitter.

We think we understand this pattern when we call it a “straw man” argument. Actually, we’re just giving it a name that sounds familiar. It makes us feel better but doesn’t illuminate a thing.

We should recognize the following. Demand for widely bought-into cyber-utopian claims that can be corrected in this way is far greater than the supply. We can keep shouting, “there’s no supply!” (or, as you put it, “is anyone really arguing that…”) but the demand doesn’t go away. Lots of people paying attention to events sense this demand. So they speak into it. But where does the demand come from? I wish I knew.


Jay – maybe technological determinists are being more cautious this time, but last year during the Iran protests there were many broad pronouncements about how social media will invariably lead to social change and political freedom. From an piece I wrote last year:

Influential blogger Andrew Sullivan has declared the events in Iraq “The Twitter Revolution.”1 Likewise, his Atlantic colleague Marc Ambinder writes, “The Revolution Will Be Twittered.” 2 Technopundit Clay Shirky says, “it seems pretty clear that . . . this is it. This is the big one. This is the first revolution that has been catapulted onto a global stage and transformed by social media.”3

Sources and full article at

— Ted Friedman

Scott Rosenberg

Jay, this “stuck discourse” (your apt phrase) of anti-cyber-utopian argument fell into this groove all the way back in the mid-’90s. The very first wave of Internet/Web anti-hype, spearheaded by Cliff Stoll et all, first dug this trench, and the arguments have barreled down it ever since. One consistent characteristic of this discourse, as Mathew points out, is the absence of actual citable cyber-utopian statements or adherents (the missing-person straw men). Another is the wilful misreading of statements that “the Net changes things” to mean “the Net makes everything better.”


Without underlying social problems, social networking cannot start anything. Social networking is but a tool and nothing more alas it is making sharing information (true or false) and organizing that much easier.
I was one of the thousands of people out on the streets in December ’89 in a desperate bid to depose Ceausescu. The pain was greater than the fear of repression… No Twitter back then, but somehow everyone knew.

alan p

It’s not just the Internet, that was turned off and the Egyptians still did a good job of protesting. Al Jazera TV has done an amazing job too, and I think mobile comms has been waaay overlooked by ‘netheads.

Mathew Ingram

I agree that Al-Jazeera and mobile networks have also been powerful tools, Alan — it’s not about saying one is better than the other.

alan p

Recently I’ve been researching previous major political revolutions – the French, Russian (both 1917 and 1987), Weimar etc – and the role of comms. My overwhelming sense so far is that while the comms are a “nice to have”, they are secondary to the other factors. In fact, the biggest common factor I can see seems to be young males sensing they don’t have a future. And the young use the technology of the day to communicate their ideals, which is IMHO where the correlation comes in.

In other words, the revolution is going to happen, whether the comms technology is horseback or broadband.


I agree. I sense the skeptics here are making a kind of straw man argument here. The idea that Twitter or Facebook could “cause” people to risk life and limb to defy their government is non-sensical – these are just tools. No thinking person is making that argument. But are these powerful tools that are shaping these movements and enabling them to spread more quickly and efficiently? Yes.

Edwin K.

Interesting post. Communication (and even more real-time communication) is key in any form of revolt/up-rising. When dictatorships want to take control of a country the two things they focus on are 1) the army and 2) the communication infrastructure. It is only natural that what was true for TV and Radio is true for the internet and the multiple forms of communications it enables. Communication is what transforms a simple up-rising into a long term/powerful movement.

Beyond the real-time aspect of the internet, it’s global reach is also an important dimension. A single picture or video can create a significant emotional impact (and sometimes a distortion) and affect the branding of a country/government. Countries are increasingly very sensitive to this. They use to be able to control the message. The no longer can.


Well said, Edwin.

Social & News Media derived from uprisings create a wider audience which in effect generates more drama, fixation and energy. All the focus fuels the fire. Until it fizzles out and the true impact, if any, can be assessed. Though very real and significant to those directly involved, it is News “Entertainment” to many. That’s how it is packaged and delivered. Attention is monetizated.

These Uprisings are expressive but at some point, the mundane tasks of government reform need to take over. Screaming, shaking trucks, settings fires, looting and marching… don’t amount to much and can only persist for a short period before people are too jaded and inconvenienced to continue. Sadly, the attention on the stories subside when the noise and smoke fade away. Ripples. And “They” know it.

Raymond Cote

Yes it is two mints in one!

You need both the hammer and the nail.

You need both the social discontent to fuel revolutionary change and the a communication medium by which to collaborate that collective social action.

Ubiquitous real-time communication technologies, as Mcluhan might say, both accelerates and extends the power of such collaborative action by accelerating the time frame and by extending it’s geographical reach and impact.

Indeed the social discontent is the nail but the real-time communication technologies give that collaborative revolutionary action hammer a lot more tour-de-force to drive home the change.

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