How Digital Music Can Fight Climate Change


Anecdotally we knew it was true: Digital music downloaded to our computers eliminates all that energy required to produce and ship CDs. But a group of researchers from Carnegie Mellon University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Stanford University, including longtime IT energy researcher Jonathan Koomey (who spoke at our Green:Net ’09 conference earlier this year), have concluded that yep, in general buying digital music reduces the energy and CO2 emissions of delivering the music by between 40 and 80 percent compared with traditional CD distribution methods. That’s despite the additional energy used to download the music via the Internet, and thus the group concludes that “[O]nline delivery is clearly superior from an energy and CO2 perspective.”

The research was done by Koomey, Project Scientist & Professor at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory & Stanford University, along with Christopher Weber, Research Assistant Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Carnegie Mellon, and H. Scott Matthews, Research Director of the Green Design Institute at Carnegie Mellon. The research compares an album published on a CD and shipped to a brick-n-mortar retail outlet, an album published on a CD and bought via e-commerce (both shipped via truck and air), an album downloaded and used digitally, and an album downloaded and burned to a CD used with and without a jewel case (these guys were thorough).

The findings are important because despite the growing concern over the increasing amount of energy used by the Internet, this proves that the Internet can be a substantial source for dematerialization — replacing atoms with digital bits, reducing goods created and reducing carbon emissions.

There are a few exceptions, however, in the case of digital music. If the buyer walks to a retail outlet to buy a CD, instead of driving, it’s about the same energy and carbon emissions as buying an album online and then burning it to a CD. In addition, if the size of the album is 260 MB (up from the more traditional 60-100 MB) then downloading and burning that album to a CD is about the same as buying an actual CD via e-commerce, because of the added energy from downloading it via the Internet. These subtleties are interesting because it shows what was taking up a significant portion of the energy and carbon emissions from the traditional CD distribution method: just driving to the store.

The research was one of three reports that were released on Monday morning (at 9AM pacific) by Koomey, and developed for Intel (s INTC) and Microsoft (s MSFT). Another of Koomey’s reports looks at how data center developers need to consider the cost of power required to run data centers, in addition to the costs of buying the IT equipment and the performance of the equipment itself. That research found that companies that are running cloud computing services (shared, virtualized computing power) have been early movers when it comes to recognizing the overall cost of energy in data centers. Koomey’s third report looks at how PCs are becoming increasingly efficient (via the metric “computations per kilowatt-hour”) but there is still significant room for faster, more efficient computing in the future.


Justin Jarvinen

Katie, great information. And hello Jamie (I founded VerveLife so it’s exciting to see the post). Further to the researchers points, all of which are valid, I wonder if – assuming record labels had baselined their CO2e in, say, 2003, or some time before physical sales began to slump – the net reduction in sales, and therefore, CO2e, could have been captured and converted into carbon credits and sold. If this was possible, then it seems to me that a reduction in physical sales could have resulted in an increase in revenues.

My partners and I conducted a very similar study in 2003 and the net reduction in physical sales, if captured, would have resulted in a net US $300mm annual increase in revenues (assuming $4.50 per mt CO2e which was the going rate) for US based major labels.


This is great news because it’s important to point out the positives in digital music. Hopefully the results of this study will make for more brands using digital music as part of their marketing strategy due to the increasing importance of “going green” in society. There’s a company called VerveLife that works with brands to create these types of digital music promotions who often highight their eco-friendly aspects. It’s worth checking them out at

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