Blog Post

11 Companies Racing to Build U.S. Cellulosic Ethanol Plants

Stay on Top of Enterprise Technology Trends

Get updates impacting your industry from our GigaOm Research Community
Join the Community!

There are almost a dozen companies racing to build the first next-generation cellulosic ethanol plants in the United States over the next few years. The plants will be built all over the U.S. and will churn out biofuels made from waste, plant byproducts and woody energy crops. It’s no easy task. Not only do these companies have to build pilot and demo plants, but ultimately large-scale, commercialized refineries that can take years to construct and require hundreds of millions of investment dollars.

While biofuels have been getting a bad rap lately, President Bush’s Twenty in Ten Initiative aims to increase the use of renewable and alternative fuels in the transportation sector to the equivalent of 35 billion gallons of ethanol a year by 2017. These 11 companies are focusing on finding the right recipe to make the cellulosic ethanol production economically feasible. Good luck to them (per request from the comment section, we added in the tickers for the public companies):


Verenium: The company is in the final stages of testing and evaluating its demo facility, which can produce 1.4 million gallons per year. Construction on the pilot plant began in February 2007. Japanese companies Marubeni and Tsukishima Kikai used Verenium’s technology to build a demo project that can produce 1.3 million liters (less than 350,000 gallons) per year in January 2007 in Osaka, Japan, with plans to scale it up to 4 million liters per year in 2008. The company is currently on track to start construction of a 30 million-gallon-per-year commercial U.S. plant in mid-2009. Verenium trades on the NASDAQ, ticker: VRNM.

Coskata: The company is currently producing cellulosic ethanol in its labs and plans to scale up a pilot project in Madison, Penn., to a 40,000-gallon-per-year demonstration facility that will start delivering ethanol by early 2009 and is projected to cost $25 million to build. Coskata says it’s working on a 100 million-gallon-per-year facility, in an undisclosed U.S. location, that it hopes will go online by early 2011. The startup has raised almost $30 million from Globespan Capital Partners, GM, Khosla Ventures, GreatPoint Ventures and Advanced Technology Ventures. Coskata’s technology first gasifies biomass into syngas and then adds proprietary microbes that turn the syngas into ethanol.

Range Fuels: Range Fuels has been testing its technology in pilot-scale units for the past seven years. The company began construction in November 207 of its first 20 million-gallon-per-year phase of a commercial ethanol plant in Soperton, Ga., with plans to finish sometime in 2009. The plant is supposed to scale up to 100 million gallons per year. The startup has raised over $130 million from Passport Capital, BlueMountain, Khosla Ventures, Leaf Clean Energy Company and Pacific Capital Group (with participation by the California Public Employee Retirement System.) Range Fuel’s technology uses a thermochemical process to turn biomass into synthetic gas and then fuel.

POET: POET is a longtime corn ethanol producers that will be using its existing infrastructure to move into cellulosic ethanol production. The company is expanding its 50 million-gallon-per-year corn-based ethanol facility in Emmetsburg, Iowa, to include a cellulosic plant. The entire plant will produce 125 million gallons per year, 25 million of those for cellulosic ethanol. Construction on the cellulosic ethanol plant is scheduled to start in 2009 and be done in 2011. The DOE selected POET to receive up to $80 million in funds for its cellulosic ethanol plant. The plant will convert corn cobs and fiber from the kernel into cellulosic ethanol.

DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol LLC: The joint venture plans to have its first pilot plant online by 2009 and its first full-scale commercial demonstration plant operational by 2012. A 50/50 JV between DuPont and Genencor, the companies plan to invest $70 million each over the next three years. The technology will use DuPont’s proprietary pretreatment and ethanologen technologies and Genencor’s enzymatic hydrolysis methods. The JV will initially target corn stover and sugar cane bagasse as feedstocks.

Mascoma: Mascoma and the University of Tennessee are jointly building a switchgrass-fed demo refinery in Monroe County, Tenn., that will produce 5 million gallons per year and will be operational in 2009. The company also started construction on a pilot plant in Rome, N.Y., in 2006. In addition, Mascoma is looking to build a commercial-scale biorefinery using wood as a feedstock, to be located in Michigan, and is working with Michigan State University and Michigan Technological University.

Mascoma has raised almost $90 million to date from a number of investors including: GM, Khosla Ventures, Flagship Ventures, General Catalyst Partners, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, Vantage Point Venture Partners, Atlas Venture and Pinnacle Ventures. The company’s technology relies on microbes to convert cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol, and Coskata claims it will establish the country’s first plant to produce cellulosic ethanol using switchgrass.

ZeaChem: The company has a test facility at its headquarters in Menlo Park, Calif., where it says it has successfully brewed its first liter of ethanol from poplar trees. ZeaChem is working with forest manager GreenWood Resources to build a 1.5 million gallons a year test facility near Portland, Ore. The startup received $4 million in funding last summer from Mohr Davidow Ventures. Firelake Capital is also an investor. The company’s technology converts fermentable sugars into acetate and then gasifies the remainder, tough lignin and all, into hydrogen before mixing the two streams in a reaction called hydrogenolysis to produce ethanol.

SunEthanol: The company says it aims to have a pilot plant in operation in 2009 and is reportedly also building a 2.5 million-gallon-per-year demonstration facility. Update: SunEthanol’s former CEO Jef Sharp tells us that the company is working with ICM to build the demo plant, and is also planning a commercial scale plant that a yet-undisclosed partner will build.

Investors include VeraSun, Battery Ventures, Camros Capital LLC and LongRiver Ventures. The U.S. Department of Energy recently awarded SunEthanol a $100,000 research grant. The company uses the “Q Microbe” for its “C3 process,” which does the ethanol conversion of hydrolysis and fermentation in one step.

BlueFire Ethanol: The company is working on a 3.1 million-gallon-per-year cellulosic ethanol facility that will be delivered in a joint effort with contractors MECS and Brinderson and located at a Lancaster, Calif., landfill. BlueFire is also working with the DOE on a second facility that will convert waste from landfills into roughly 17 million gallons of fuel-grade ethanol per year. BlueFire confirmed with us that that DOE plant is still on track.

The startup was awarded funding from the Department of Energy to construct its ethanol production facilities. BlueFire trades on the over-the-counter Bulletin Board market. The company converts the cellulose to sugars, ferments it and purifies the fermentation liquids into products. The company trades on OTC, ticker: BFRE.

Abengoa Bioenergy: Owned by Spanish engineering company Abengoa, the company opened a pilot plant in York, Neb., in October 2007, which cost some $35 million to build. Abengoa plans to spend $300 million to build a cellulosic ethanol production plant in Hugoton, Kan., which will produce 49 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year. The company also got a $76 million grant from the DOE to help fund a project in Colwich, Kansas, that the DOE said will produce 11.4 million gallons per year (we’re checking to see the latest updates on the DOE project).

Iogen: The Canadian company is planning on building a cellulosic ethanol refinery in Saskatchewan that has now entered the due diligence process. Iogen is one of six companies that could receive money from the DOE to build U.S. biorefinery plants. Iogen has proposed a plant in Shelley, Idaho, near Idaho Falls, that will produce 18 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol annually.

Update: An Iogen spokesperson says the company has “suspended” its plans to build a plant in Idaho, to focus on its Saskatchewan plant (we first read that news here). The Iogen spokesperson says the Idaho plant could be built in the future, but that the company has suspended focusing on that U.S. location and at this time is not actively pursuing that DOE funding. Our story in this news here.

Founded in the ’70s, the company has received public and private investment of over $130 million over the past 25 years, including investors Royal Dutch/Shell Group, Petro-Canada and Goldman Sachs. Iogen is working with Shell and Goldman Sachs to convert biomass into sugars using specialized enzymes; the sugars are then fermented and distilled to make cellulosic ethanol. Iogen is a privately held company.

Updated (here’s a few more):

SunOpta: We were a little hesitant to put SunOpta on the list as its continues to delay filing its financial statements, but it does have a long history in the cellulosic ethanol business. The company, based in Brampton, Ontario, said last year that it has several pilot facilities operational in the United States that are funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratories. The company also plans to have commercial scale plants in the United States, funded by the DOE, with construction starting in 2008 and fully completed by 2009. Trades on the NASDAQ, ticker: STKL.

KL Process Design Group: The company opened what it says is the first wood-fiber cellulosic ethanol plant in January of this year near Upton, Wyo.

Cleantech Biofuels: The company, based in St. Louis, Mo., said in April that it is working with Hazen Research to start building the precommercial stages of a solid waste-to-ethanol project at Hazen’s facility in Golden, Colo. The company trades on OTC, ticker: CLTH.

American Energy Enterprises (AEEE): Here’s a company in Brookfield, Connecticut, that says it will open a cellulosic ethanol distillery by November 2009. In March the company said it plans to buy a mill in New Milford, Connecticut, to build and operate a 24 to 50 million gallon per year cellulosic ethanol distillery. AEEE Chairman Chris Brown tells us that the facility will eventually churn out 100 million gallons per year using a process called “dillute acid hydrolysis.” AEEE is working with SPEC Engineering and BEI to design and build the plant.

—- Any more? Contact us and we’ll add ’em in.

68 Responses to “11 Companies Racing to Build U.S. Cellulosic Ethanol Plants”

  1. To reduce the demand of energy, the use of the railway shoud be increased. It will not be necessary to gain so much bio fuel, that you can satisfy today potential world- demand. But there will be enough, when you are using everywhere the most eficient system.
    When you find here the British flag you will find english information for more fright on the railway:

    Than there is the question if biogas or ethanol is the better way of energyproduction from biological left overs?
    The kryo- recycling- technique gives the chance to develop good recycable long- living – plastics and to use them to reduce wight from cars and trains and its energy- demand.

    The best biofuel is your own power in your shoes and on your bicycle. Our body needs movement and is a good thing to do so many ways, as possible on your own power. But don’t use to much ethanol for yourself!

  2. We have pure organic liquid that contains nutrients, carbons and mineralsThis is an extract from 100% Australian Eucalyptus trees + Steam. 100% Organic
    The process to extract the tree sap is steam to heat and soften the trees then pressure to squeeze out 96-99% of the liquid(sap) of the tree, the tree fibre is used to make other products. The concentrated tree liquid and condensed steam is what we have, 1 litre = 1.070 kg.It also contains C4,C5 and C6 sugars- (food related and wood sugars )
    Food related sugars will produce 4% + per volume of ethanol, Wood sugars (untested ) will produce 15% + per volume of ethanol
    Wood sugars, our in house chemist has estimated this figure on this as we do not have the right bacteria to turn wood sugars into ethanol via cellulose.
    We can not get one refinery interested in it over here in Australia as it is to hard (they do not have the right bacteria to convert wood sugars) and they have grain at the finger tips. We have 250,000 + ton per week of this liquid and we where hoping you might be able to point us in the right direction to find a buyer in the US for it.
    Thank you for your time.
    Brisbane Australia

    • GeneSyst Ecotechnologies India is preparing to announce early in 2010 the startup of 6 second generation commercial scale ethanol plants in India using a broad spectrum of feedstock, including municipal solid waste and agricultural field and processing waste, using the award winning Patented GeneSyst process, invented by James Titmas of USA. A total of over 20 plants are currently at preliminary stages in varying regions of India.

      We would be interested in learning more from Ron Bass of Auatralia of the Eucalyptus liquid extract that he describes in his post. The GeneSyst technology for the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstock occurs in a water medium prior to fermentation and distillation processes. The conversion of woody materials to mono saccharides (C4, C5, C6, etc.) can be readily facilitated from any lignocellulosic raw material feedstock. Please get in touch with me to discuss business options for your 250,000 tpw of organic liquid waste.

      BK Rao
      Managing Trustee
      Chairman and CEO
      GeneSyst Ecotechnologies India Pvt Ltd
      email: [email protected]

  3. Brian J. Donovan

    Louisiana Enacts the Most Comprehensive Advanced Biofuel Legislation in the Nation

    Advanced Biofuel Industry Development Initiative Benefits Consumers, Farmers and Gas Station Owners with Localized “Field-to-Pump” Strategy

    Baton Rouge, LA (September 25, 2008) – Governor Bobby Jindal has signed into law the Advanced Biofuel Industry Development Initiative, the most comprehensive and far-reaching state legislation in the nation enacted to develop a statewide advanced biofuel industry. Louisiana is the first state to enact alternative transportation fuel legislation that includes a variable blending pump pilot program and a hydrous ethanol pilot program.

    Field-to-Pump Strategy
    The legislature found that the proper development of an advanced biofuel industry in Louisiana requires implementation of the following comprehensive “field-to-pump” strategy developed by Renergie, Inc.:

    (1) Feedstock Other Than Corn
    (a) derived solely from Louisiana harvested crops;
    (b) capable of an annual yield of at least 600 gallons of ethanol per acre;
    (c) requiring no more than one-half of the water required to grow corn;
    (d) tolerant to high temperature and waterlogging;
    (e) resistant to drought and saline-alkaline soils;
    (f) capable of being grown in marginal soils, ranging from heavy clay to light sand;
    (g) requiring no more than one-third of the nitrogen required to grow corn, thereby reducing the risk of contamination of the waters of the state; and
    (h) requiring no more than one-half of the energy necessary to convert corn into ethanol.

    (2) Decentralized Network of Small Advanced Biofuel Manufacturing Facilities
    Smaller is better. The distributed nature of a small advanced biofuel manufacturing facility network reduces feedstock supply risk, does not burden local water supplies and provides for broader based economic development. Each advanced biofuel manufacturing facility operating in Louisiana will produce no less than 5 million gallons of advanced biofuel per year and no more than 15 million gallons of advanced biofuel per year.

    (3) Market Expansion
    Advanced biofuel supply and demand shall be expanded beyond the 10% blend market by blending fuel-grade anhydrous ethanol with gasoline at the gas station pump. Variable blending pumps, directly installed and operated at local gas stations by a qualified small advanced biofuel manufacturing facility, shall offer the consumer a less expensive substitute for unleaded gasoline in the form of E10, E20, E30 and E85.

    Pilot Programs
    (1) Advanced Biofuel Variable Blending Pumps – The blending of fuels with advanced biofuel percentages between 10 percent and 85 percent will be permitted on a trial basis until January 1, 2012. During this period the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry Division of Weights & Measures will monitor the equipment used to dispense the ethanol blends to ascertain that the equipment is suitable and capable of producing an accurate measurement.

    (2) Hydrous Ethanol – The use of hydrous ethanol blends of E10, E20, E30 and E85 in motor vehicles specifically selected for test purposes will be permitted on a trial basis until January 1, 2012. During this period the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry Division of Weights & Measures will monitor the performance of the motor vehicles. The hydrous blends will be tested for blend optimization with respect to fuel consumption and engine emissions. Preliminary tests conducted in Europe have proven that the use of hydrous ethanol, which eliminates the need for the hydrous-to-anhydrous dehydration processing step, results in an energy savings of between ten percent and forty-five percent during processing, a four percent product volume increase, higher mileage per gallon, a cleaner engine interior, and a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Act No. 382, entitled “The Advanced Biofuel Industry Development Initiative,” was co-authored by 27 members of the Legislature. The original bill was drafted by Renergie, Inc. Representative Jonathan W. Perry (R – District 47), with the support of Senator Nick Gautreaux (D – District 26), was the primary author of the bill. Reflecting on the signing of Act No. 382 into law, Brian J. Donovan, CEO of Renergie, Inc. said, “I am pleased that the legislature and governor of the great State of Louisiana have chosen to lead the nation in moving ethanol beyond being just a blending component in gasoline to a fuel that is more economical, cleaner, renewable, and more efficient than unleaded gasoline. The two pilot programs, providing for an advanced biofuel variable blending pump trial and a hydrous ethanol trial, established by the State of Louisiana should be adopted by each and every state in our country.”

    State Agencies Must Purchase or Lease Vehicles That Use Alternative Fuels
    Louisiana’s Advanced Biofuel Industry Development Initiative further states, “The commissioner of administration shall not purchase or lease any motor vehicle for use by any state agency unless that vehicle is capable of and equipped for using an alternative fuel that results in lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, or particulates or any combination thereof that meet or exceed federal Clean Air Act standards.”

    Advanced Biofuel Price Preference for State Agencies
    Louisiana’s Advanced Biofuel Industry Development Initiative provides that a governmental body, state educational institution, or instrumentality of the state that performs essential governmental functions on a statewide or local basis is entitled to purchase E20, E30 or E85 advanced biofuel at a price equal to fifteen percent (15%) less per gallon than the price of unleaded gasoline for use in any motor vehicle.

    Economic Benefits
    The development of an advanced biofuel industry will help rebuild the local and regional economies devastated as a result of hurricanes Katrina and Rita by providing:
    (1) increased value to the feedstock crops which will benefit local farmers and provide more revenue to the local community;
    (2) increased investments in plants and equipment which will stimulate the local economy by providing construction jobs initially and the chance for full-time employment after the plant is completed;
    (3) secondary employment as associated industries develop due to plant co-products becoming available at a competitive price; and
    (4) increased local and state revenues collected from plant operations will stimulate local and state tax revenues and provide funds for improvements to the community and to the region.

    “Representative Perry and Senator Gautreaux have worked tirelessly to craft comprehensive advanced biofuel legislation which will maximize rural development, benefit consumers, farmers and gas station owners while also protecting the environment and reducing the burden on local water supplies,” said Donovan. “Representative Perry, Senator Gautreaux, and Dr. Strain, Commissioner of the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry, should be praised for their leadership on this issue.”

    About Renergie
    Renergie was formed on March 22, 2006 for the purpose of raising capital to develop, construct, own and operate a network of ten ethanol plants in the parishes of the State of Louisiana which were devastated by hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Each ethanol plant will have a production capacity of five million gallons per year (5 MGY) of fuel-grade ethanol. Renergie’s “field-to-pump” strategy is to produce non-corn ethanol locally and directly market non-corn ethanol locally. On February 26, 2008, Renergie was one of 8 recipients, selected from 139 grant applicants, to share $12.5 million from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s Renewable Energy Technologies Grants Program. Renergie received $1,500,483 (partial funding) in grant money to design and build Florida’s first ethanol plant capable of producing fuel-grade ethanol solely from sweet sorghum juice. On April 2, 2008, Enterprise Florida, Inc., the state’s economic development organization, selected Renergie as one of Florida’s most innovative technology companies in the alternative energy sector. By blending fuel-grade ethanol with gasoline at the gas station pump, Renergie will offer the consumer a fuel that is more economical, cleaner, renewable, and more efficient than unleaded gasoline. Moreover, the Renergie project will mark the first time that Louisiana farmers will share in the profits realized from the sale of value-added products made from their crops.

  4. Robert Sanders

    I am not an educated engineer or stock analyst. Just wondered if anyone has heard of AE Biofuels Inc. that is supposed to have a cellulosic plant open in Montana the second quarter of 2008?

  5. Dear Katie Fehrenbacher:

    An interesting article reporting on developments in the USA but it still misses some including those from the EU.

    You may be interested therefore to hear that in Hardenberg [Northern Holland] that a €50million [US $74million] programme is underway to convert 200,000 tonnes per year of Biomass to produce 33+ megalitres of Ethanol a year utilising the Genesyst patented Gravity Pressure Vessel and Weak-Acid Hydrolysis in conjunction with traditional water treatment style plant and fermentation equipment as proposed by IEP (Indiana Ethanol Power.) This programme includes 100,000 tonnes per year of Biomass disposed of in Municipal Solid Waste from the local area as well as from other sources of Biomass from waste.

    We can also alert you to a proposal in the North East England [UK] for a proposal to build a similar plant based entirely on Biomass from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is awaiting final financing to go. This UK £50million [US $95million] programme will initially be designed to convert 300,000 tonnes per year of Biomass to make 50+ megalitres of Ethanol on an existing land fill site. Eventually this programme will be extended to convert 500,000 tonnes per year of Biomass to make the fuel Ethanol. Again this programme will be using the Genesyst patented Gravity Pressure Vessel as above.

    An MSW to Ethanol plant uses environmentally acceptable processes that have none of the downsides of incineration [thermal treatment] plants which have created such angst with the Public They are also affordable costing less than 40% of an equivalent [incineration] plant and through the production of the fuel Ethanol will provide a significant income stream which can be reinvested back into the community within a short time from setting to work.

  6. JMclemore

    Have they started building the plant in Soperton, GA? If so, who is the electrical contractor doing this job. Any help would be appreciated.

  7. Where did you get your information about SunOpta pilot plants? SunOpta has pilot and laboratory facilities located in Ontario, Canada. The company has provided some pretreatment equipment to two other companies’ pilot projects (Abengia and Verenium) located in the U.S. that may have received government funding. Even that Fittl guy should know that if he knows anything about Sunopta. Please check your sources and correct your information.

  8. SunOpta is one of of the leading companies in the field. They designed the DOE pilot plant in York, Nebraska that utilized $17.7 in US public taxdollars from the US Department of Energy. They also designed the first cellulosic butanol plant in Soustons, France and have biomass conversion plants all over the world including Germany, Italy, Finland, China as well as several in the US. They are one of the few companies that meet all the criteria for commercialization that includes funding, hemicellulose conversion and can extract.value-added co-product streams like lignin and biomass chemicals. The lead investor in SunOpta BioProcess is BlackRock with over $1.3 trillion under asset management. The GATO Group owns over 1% of all outstanding shares in SunOpta. -William Dittl (GATO Group founder and BOD member)

  9. Bryant

    Just like in the ’70’s, the race is on to get government grants and this time the forced pricing that government mandated usage will create. This has been a pipedream all along. And even if it were to become technologically feasible, only something like MSW as the raw material makes any sense. Not enough land to grow anything, food or not, for it to have any significant impact. Using the residual organic matter left from agriculture or forestry industries removes the material that fortifies the soil where those plants are grown and ultimately will require the use of fertilizers to make it productive.

    This nonsense must end and until it does we will not really begin to look for solutions that work now.

  10. Jay Brunson

    Oh man, you are way off. By my count, there are 31 cellulosic based fuel ethanol plants under development in North America. You just found the ones with the most press and easy to get. Roll up your sleeves dude…

  11. Great article Katie and all the other contributors, thought you all might be interested in this RFP
    The U.S. Endowment for Forestry & Communities (the Endowment) is
    seeking pre-proposals from qualified service providers who can aid in the
    development of a state-of-the-issue report and an information
    management system on the current and emerging wood and woody
    biomass/bio-energy industry in North America (Canada and U.S.). The
    Endowment seeks to develop this information so that it might best
    determine places and means to target work to yield the greatest gain from
    potential future programmatic investments.

  12. jpm100

    “Biofuels has low energy conversion efficiency and most technologies here has even negtive energy efficiency – means they use more energy than they produced.”

    If you actually read the articles/press releases before commenting, you’d see that Coskata’s process, as one example. has over a 6:1 net energy return.

  13. Reinvestor

    The SunOpta partnership with Greenfield Ethanol was a flop. SunOpta and Abengoa is in court. Verenium CEO said to Will Dittl in the last conference call that continuous steam explosion technology wasn’t the only technology available for cellulosic ethanol and that there were other technologies readily available. SunOpta shipped equipment to one of vereniums companies, but when Verenium announced the opening of their pilot plant they said nothing about continue steam explosion being necessary to make cellulosic ethanol and infact it is not. Case and point: 11 other companies racing towards full scale cellulosic ethanol production. SunOpta’s prized company on the list doesn’t appear to want to work with them anymore due to litigation and Verenium CEO said that SunOpta BioProcess wasn’t the only player and they are looking at other options.

  14. Reality

    Biofuels has low energy conversion efficiency and most technologies here has even negtive energy efficiency – means they use more energy than they produced.

    Suger cane is the only option to biofuels. All others are / will be losers because no one can make money out of it, except tax payer’s money to waste.

  15. voicebox

    I understand that a UK company called TMO Renewables has built a cellulosic ethanol plant in Surrey, England. Its a private company but the hot gossip is that they are backed by blue chip London investors and are said to be close to a deal with a number of US ethanol proudcuers.

  16. Genahol-Powers1,LLC has completed final contract negotiations with the Lake County Indiana Solid Waste Management District to build a MSW to Ethanol plant in northwest Indiana. The facility will process 2000 tons per day and ramp up to 6000 tons per day in approximately 4-years, and is 100% financed from private investment. Earl Powers, President and CEO stated their Arkansas process facility has been successfully turning trash into ethanol for five years.

  17. Will Dittl, the GATO guy, would call your attention to SunOpta. It’s doing a feasibility study in advance of possibly building a commercial-scale plant in Minnesota with a local ethanol producer coop (CMEC).