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Summary:

When Verizon announced Apple’s iPhone, the operator appeared confident that its data network was robust enough to handle the anticipated increase in network traffic. Here’s how: data optimization and bandwidth throttling after 5 GB of use, which can slow data speeds down for nearly two months.

verizon-iphone-red

When Verizon Wireless triumphantly announced it would be carrying Apple’s iPhone, the carrier assured the public its network could handle the data load. We may now know why Verizon seemed so confident: a leaked PDF indicates that the carrier will employ both bandwidth throttling for heavy network users and data transcoding techniques to reduce strain on the network. That may sound reasonable, but the carrier may penalize heavy users an extra month.

The Boy Genius Report blog noticed the PDF, which has two pertinent points. Here’s the part about reducing bandwidth for high usage during a billing cycle:

“[i]f you use an extraordinary amount of data and fall within the top 5% of Verizon Wireless data users we may reduce your data throughput speeds periodically for the remainder of your then current and immediately following billing cycle to ensure high quality network performance for other users at locations and times of peak demand.”

Although the statement is vague in terms of how much data qualifies you as user in the top 5 percent and how slow your data speeds will be if you fall in that category, the concept is similar to what T-Mobile adopted last April. T-Mobile’s policy kicks in after 5 GB of network use, but only continues for the remainder of the current billing cycle. Verizon appears to be taking a punitive approach because the slow throughput will continue into a second full billing cycle, which won’t go over well with customers.

The second discussion point in the Verizon PDF partially reminds me of Opera’s business model. No, Verizon isn’t making a browser, but if the PDF is accurate, it will be actively optimizing data files so fewer wireless bits are used by network users, similar to how Opera compresses and service data:

We are implementing optimization and transcoding technologies in our network to transmit data files in a more efficient manner to allow available network capacity to benefit the greatest number of users. These techniques include caching less data, using less capacity, and sizing the video more appropriately for the device. The optimization process is agnostic to the content itself and to the website that provides it.

This too, isn’t new. I remember when I purchased my first EVDO modem from Verizon back in 2005, a similar approach was used. Verizon’s software for the modem included Venturi compression to help reduce bandwidth by optimizing the data stream. While that sounded good in theory, I have vivid memories of fuzzy images due to the compression technique. But that was six years ago, which is equal to a few technical cycles, so hopefully, history doesn’t repeat itself.

While many consumers think of mobile broadband as an “always on and available to use as much as desired” type of utility, it simply isn’t. Towers don’t pop up overnight, and even if they did, they need a fast wired connection to the web. Wireless spectrum from phones to such towers is limited too; if the concept doesn’t make sense, just try to connect 100 devices to your home wireless network to simulate this problem at a high level. If you’d rather not stress your home network, my colleague Stacey explains the concept in this post from last year.

So carriers have to find ways to handle the data load, especially when a new device that historically attracts heavy data users is added to the mix. AT&T wasn’t prepared for this onslaught by the original iPhone and saw its network demand rise more than 5,000 percent in three years time, for example. And according to an interview that Stacey had with yesterday with Joel Brand, VP of product management of Bytemobile, operators say that 90 percent of their network use is consumed by 10 percent of their users.

Instead of playing the network investment catch-up game that has engaged AT&T these last few years, Verizon is getting an early jump on the issue by using policy: one that will help load balance the network demand as the Verizon iPhone arrives. This approach supplements the three other reasons why I don’t believe the iPhone will cripple Verizon’s network.

I asked folks on Twitter about the situation but haven’t seen any negative reactions just yet. Sloanb, for example finds the throttling approach to be fair because there are no overage fees, although I’m willing to bet he didn’t see the punitive steps in month two:

http://twitter.com/#!/sloanb/status/33182397948231681

And mdflores understands the limitations of wireless networks:

http://twitter.com/#!/mdflores/status/33175200736481280

What do you think? Is it a necessary evil or cheap insurance to offer a certain level of network reliability? Would you rather have free rein to use what you pay for when it comes to wireless broadband, and if so, how could that be done without impacting those who want access but can’t afford the same capacity? Those questions aside, I think most of us will agree that slowing bandwidth into a second month seems far more punitive than paid service should allow.

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  1. It’s fair, I guess. If it’s really an issue that is. However, I think the real issue at fault here is Verizon and others overselling their network. They sell so many handsets and expect people to NOT use the data and in reality more people are buying these devices BECAUSE they can use the data. Then they cry foul. The real solution is for Verizon to build out the network to handle the MAJORITY of their subscribers downloading a fair amount of data and 5 GB ain’t it. If a cap is necessary at all, it should be barely noticeable by most people. Even heavy downloaders.

    My main fear is that innovation slows down because of money hungry plans like most wireless carriers have now. We should be paying LESS for bandwidth now as Verizon and others add customers but the reality is we’re paying more than we ever have especially if you have a phone and some other 3G device (iPad, Android tablet…etc).

  2. We won’t know for sure just how “fair” this is until the heavy data users hit the network, but if that top 5% means 2GB or more, then a lot of people will be screwed. I think Verizon needs to come clean about their practices – this won’t be the first time an unlimited plan turns out to be anything but unlimited.

    As I said in comment on an earlier post, if carriers cannot handle such capacity, then they shouldn’t offer an unlimited plan at all. 5GB is nothing for those that stream video, tether to their notebook/netbook or use a web cam daily. Punishing users for an additional month though does raise an issue – users are still PAYING full-price for that month of service!

    5GB caps were never realistic on 3G and faster networks. I know from my experience that I can easily eat through 20GB in one month at 3G speeds. Heavy users have very few choices in the US for true unlimited mobile broadband – those that I’ve tried (Clearwire 4G) either didn’t work as they should or have since (Virgin Mobile) ceased to exist.

  3. I live in Germany. I have had an iPhone 3G for 2 years with an unlimited data plan. My family has 2 iPads with unlimited data plans. Almost everyone here has some type of smartphone with unlimited data plans. I am no expert on this issue, so my question is what is the difference between European data plans/capabilities and those in the U.S, and why is it so expensive/limited?

    1. the 3G networks in germany and the rest of europe were built 10 years ago the right way so that they work well. the US carriers waited for a much cheaper version of the technology to come out and is simply not as good.

      while in europe new towers and infrastructure were built to move from 2G to 3G for the most part in the US the carriers learned how to ‘upgrade’ 2G networks at the lowest possible cost.

  4. It’s unfair because, once again, users have no recourse but to cross their fingers and hope for the best. There are some people who simply go through a lot of data. I’m one of them. If there was a real “unlimited” plan, I’d pay for it almost regardless of the cost. But there’s no such thing anywhere anymore so all I and any other heavy data users can do is hope they don’t fall into that nebulous “top 5 percent”. Then Verizon goes the extra mile and penalizes users an extra month and will probably demand they still pay for it. Even more unfair. So much so that, for the first time in three years, I’m actually GLAD I’m on AT&T!

  5. Verizon Not Yet Breaking a Sweat Over iPhone Traffic: Apple News, Tips and Reviews « Monday, February 14, 2011

    [...] Verizon might just have a network that’s better equipped to handle rapid growth, or maybe the bandwidth throttling it’s using to limit network congestion is having the desired effect. Kevin predicted that the introduction of the iPhone wouldn’t [...]

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