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Summary:

Quora, the red-hot Q&A startup, depends on high-quality answers — and has deliberately kept things small in order to cultivate a knowledgeable community. But can it keep those virtues when its membership base is exploding and not everyone wants to play by the site’s rules?

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Updated: If you’re a web service, especially a young startup, you want to get as many users as possible, right? But there are worse things than having a small number of users — particularly when the service you are offering depends on the quality of the content provided by those users. Quora, the red-hot Q&A site that has been growing at a dramatic rate over the past few months, finds itself in that position now: The site depends on high-quality answers, and has deliberately kept things small in order to cultivate a knowledgeable community. But can it keep those virtues when membership is exploding and not everyone wants to play by the rules?

Early on in its growth, Quora — which was launched early last year by former Facebook CTO Adam D’Angelo and fellow Facebooker Charlie Cheever — made it clear it wanted to remain small in order to cultivate a community that would be different from, and better than, other web services by keeping out trolls and focusing on positive behavior. Call it the “Yahoo Answers” problem; that service, while similar in approach, suffers from an overwhelming supply of stupid questions and equally stupid answers. Cheever told Liz Gannes: “Our No. 1 thing is knowledge that people trust,” said Cheever. “Being a resource trumps making people feel good about themselves.”

To try to build up a core of high-quality content and users, the site remained in invitation-only beta before opening up to all users in June of last year. The quality of answers is noticeable: Questions have been asked and answered by Silicon Valley luminaries such as Netscape founder and VC Marc Andreessen, Facebook co-founder Dustin Moskovitz, and even AOL founder Steve Case. In an interview with me in November, Charlie Cheever talked about the kind of community Quora was trying to create, and how he and others at the site spent a lot of time thinking about how to encourage good behavior, and how to handle the inevitable disputes over unacceptable questions and answers.

Such challenges, however, become exponentially harder as a community grows larger and more diverse, which is exactly what has been happening to Quora over the past few weeks. Ever since a number of high-profile blog posts and events drew attention to the service in late-December, membership has been climbing rapidly — something you can (naturally) read all about in a response to a question on Quora itself. Some users, including me, have seen their email inboxes overwhelmed with hundreds of follows every day for the past two or three weeks — in part because the site auto-follows all your Facebook and Twitter friends when you sign up. Although Quora won’t say exactly how many users it has, it likely has more than double or triple the number it did a month ago.

Quora cofounder Charlie Cheever

There are obvious challenges on the technical side when it comes to that kind of growth — as Twitter found in its early years — but even more than that, there are substantial moderation challenges if you want to maintain a certain atmosphere and community ethic, as Cheever and D’Angelo clearly do. Questions have to be read and edited, and rules have to be enforced. Just this week alone, several corporations, including the Huffington Post, set up Quora accounts, but Cheever confirmed to me that the rules of the site — at least for now — allow for personal accounts only. I’ve also come across accounts with fake names, another problem that social networks of all kinds have to contend with.

Then there are the kinds of behavior Quora wants to encourage. A user named Lucretia Pruitt got hundreds of up-votes for a post she made instructing new users in the proper conduct — but while many up-votes came from Quora staff, other users responded negatively to what they saw as a lecture, and disputed some of the recommendations. Alex Blagg, founder of a social-marketing site called BajillionHits, got into an argument on Twitter about the fact that his humorous answer to a question was being threatened with removal, and others have criticized the moderation on the site as well. These incidents bring up a central issue for Quora: How much of a site’s standards do you let the users themselves determine, and how much do you impose?

Some users are already complaining about the decline in quality on the site as traffic increases, while others are afraid this will happen soon. That said, there are lots of high-quality communities online that are going through, or have gone through, the same thing Quora has — from Slashdot and Metafilter to newer communities such as StackOverflow and Y Combinator’s Hacker News. It’s not an easy transition to make, and many services have failed to overcome what Robert Scoble calls the “chatroom problem,” or fallen into the “trough of disillusionment,” as Gartner likes to call it. Quora may someday wish it had remained small and exclusive.

Update: Charlie Cheever has written a Quora post (members of the site can write posts to all their followers as well as asking questions) about the efforts that the service is making to maintain a high level of quality, which he says the company is “deeply committed to.” The site has added a quiz and some tips on how to phrase questions, which is now shown to all new members (screenshot below), and Cheever says that it also plans to improve the “voting ranking mechanisms” for answers, as well as “special tools to support the efforts of reviewers and admins to improve the site and maintain civility.”

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  1. imo, the problem (if that’s what to call it) is that existing content is heavily skewed to tech, vc, & startups. For that, I can go to twitter or email, as many of my friends are… wait for it… tech startup CEOs or VCs.

    1. Yes, I think that is the flip-side of the popularity problem in a way — to truly become useful to more people, Quora needs to become broader, but as it becomes broader and more useful it runs into the popularity issues I’ve tried to describe. Thanks for the comment John.

  2. My problem with Quora isn’t so much the issue of quality decline as it has to be the slowest website I have ever used online. It is crazy slow and really annoying. It makes it hard for me to want to go back as their are interesting things on there like you said.

    1. Yes, that’s a fair point — I think it is another sign of how quickly they are growing and it’s possible the site is not able to keep up. Thanks for the comment.

  3. I think Quora is great and the quality of answers are great but some questions just don’t require in-depth analysis. Also once you sign up for Quora there is no indecation about the rules. Upon signing up they should state they would like in depth answers of a certain quality. But by doing so will they not push a lot of people away? There are many QA sites we can go to so i don’t think it would make much of a difference to me.

  4. The main issue i see with Quora as a sustainable business is that inherently it’s core value is nothing-more than a feature on a social media platform. So how it add value vs just building mass and being sold for some ridiculous valuation. Remember the the internet bubble?

  5. So y don’t they charge lots of money to use the site, and penalize people with fines and charges for bad ratings. Change happens when you impact the pocketbook

  6. Your definition of humorous is not mine, apparently.

  7. Am I the only one who is still asked for an invitation? Is Quora US only?

    1. Fernando Gutierrez HrR Friday, January 7, 2011

      No, they’ve gone back to invite only recently.

      1. Are you sure about that, Fernando? I haven’t heard any reports about that, and I know a bunch of people who signed up recently with no invite.

      2. Yeah, I’m sure. Here you have a link to a question in Quora explaining it:
        http://www.quora.com/Why-has-Quora-gone-back-to-invite-only-access-recently-Jan-2011

  8. Pankaj Sharma Friday, January 7, 2011

    I heard a lot about Quora.But their approach seems to be weired.i applied for invitation but till now i didnt get any.
    how they decide whom to accept as user or not?

  9. Quora’s biggest problem is its heavy handed moderation. In some cases it is actual censorship. Chinese government propagandists allegedly are on Quora censoring controversial content about China. One contributor to Quora was banned for this by Quora administrators:
    http://chinacensorshipwatch.org/tag/quora

    Quora is an excellent source of information for Silicon Valley gossip, but not so great for other information.

    1. Thanks, Justin. As I suggested in the post, moderation — and how far to go with it — is going to be one of Quora’s biggest challenges I think.

      1. Thank you Matthew for the great post. You are spot on.

  10. Clay Loveless Friday, January 7, 2011

    The most confusing thing to me about Quora right now is how Facebook’s former CTO built a site that isn’t scaling well. For me, that’s a major deterrent for spending real time there.

    1. Yes, a number of people have mentioned the same thing, Clay. They are going through their Twitter period, it seems :-)

    2. If your new site/ app isnt built to scale, you likely did not expect user adoption to happen so quickly. It’s a good problem to have, dont you think?

  11. Like teachers in the public school system, those attracted to professional blogging are of low quality as a function of compensation –producing hype and dreck.

  12. Maybe people at Quora can learn something from WikiPedia that has a self-sustaining sort of quality assurance with members themselves making sure that the inaccuracies are kept to the minimum. There is no doubt that the success of this new website is based on the quality of questions and answers it has and as the quality deteriorates it will defeat the entire purpose. It is preferred to have fewer members and let the website grew gradually while keeping high-quality content.

  13. I read a post on Quora from one of their engineers regarding the scaling problems. It sounded like the main cause was their feature that updates answers in real-time, without requiring a page refresh if someone writes a response before you reload a page. I wonder why they don’t just disable that feature. Doesn’t seem all that useful or necessary to me anyway.

    Either way, I bet they have the technical chops to get past the scaling hiccups. The real challenge will be maintaining answer quality and expanding beyond tech categories.

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  16. Wolfie Rankin Friday, January 7, 2011

    I had an account there just two days ago, just to see what it was all about. Things were going OK until someone changed my question, which apparently, wasn’t written according to the TOS. I suppose I wouldn’t have minded, except the question was different, it wasn’t what I had asked, I changed it back, they changed it back, I changed it back… with an explanation. Then they told me that I had to use my real name and use a photo of myself, something I never do anywhere else, or leave Quora.
    I told them where to go and left. I have never been treated like this by any social site before. Their slogan ought to be “Kiss our boots and call us Master”.

    1. Thanks for the comment — that’s exactly the kind of thing I was talking about, in terms of how strongly the site wants to pursue certain standards of behavior. It’s a very delicate balance.

      1. Wow, interesting! Was the question being changed by Quora staff or a enthusiastic user you thinks themself to be the pseudo-curator of the site?

  17. Davis Freeberg Friday, January 7, 2011

    I was excited about Quora and so I went and contributed a bunch of photos and comments only to see the moderators kill every single one in lieu of nothing. When 20 – 100 people get to determine what makes it on the site and what doesn’t, it’s pretty annoying for the 10’s of thousands or 100’s of thousands of others who experience rejection for trying to help the community. The entire thing is just a reimagined version of wikipedia and as much as I appreciate the depth of information there, I have no time in my life to engage in edit wars with people over their biases. If Quora does want to survive it’s popularity, they need to come up with a better way to have everyone moderate the content instead of a few.

  18. I think there are two approaches they need to take on moderation:

    Questions: yes, they will need community owners to moderate what is a valid question and what isn’t, in order to manage the spam. That will need human interaction (other than obvious duplicates that the system already manages).

    Answers: Moderation should be automated. They should work towards building a reputation engine, which could be based on the contributions you make and what’s voted up and down (or not voted on at all). The reputation of who votes an answer up or down should come into play in that algorithm. I believe it’s possible to create an engine that recognizes the “intelligence” and/or “authority” of a contributor in a given topic or category, and is able to highlight that in a sea of answers. It’ll be a tough problem to solve in what they’re positioning as a democratic platform, but it can be done.

  19. Is Quora becoming another yahoo answers? Join the debate at http://www.idebate.me/debates/?d=8915694

  20. I’ve been on Quora since January 2010 and I think new users joined with overly high expectations, as if Quora was a full-fledged and comprehensive website. It’s not. It’s a reflection of the interests and concerns of its earliest members and those who’ve joined in the past 6 months. It’s not Wikipedia, it doesn’t try to be neutral and is full of personal opinions. Biases and awkward questions and answers are rife because it’s written by real people with all of these blind spots, favoritism and personal experience.

    The Quora Admins can have a heavy hand but this has been true throughout Quora’s existence. The founders and staff have a vision for what they want Quora to be and they aren’t open to listening from the community. That can be good or bad, depending on whether you agree with them or not. At least, they tolerate a certain amount of dissent or I would’ve gotten the boot a long time ago.

    I think people came to Quora looking for what it could give them. I heard one person say that they “didn’t think it was useful”. People don’t understand that active members contribute more than they take. It’s the users who have built up what Quora is today and lurkers do not contribute anything to the site. Quora is less interested in having a lot of inactive members than in having a vital but smaller group of people who actively add questions & answers, who create new topics and vote up good answers and edit typos they find. It’s the essence of user-generated content.

    And if you don’t find what you are looking for on Quora there is an easy solution to that….write it up yourself. That’s how Quora has grown to the size it is now.

  21. You wrote:
    “Alex Blagg, founder of a social-marketing site called BajillionHits, got into an argument on Twitter about the fact that his humorous answer to a question was being threatened with removal…How much of a site’s standards do you let the users themselves determine, and how much do you impose?”

    This begs the question, who is the imposer and who is the impose-ee. Mr. Blagg has BaJillion opportunities to be as “funny” as he deems fit on his site. It is a tragedy to us all when a loud imposer takes to the pulpit and calls foul because he doesn’t like the rules. Like all sites, if you don’t like it, don’t play. Stick to your principles Charlie Cheever. And Mr. Blagg, there’s always 4chan, for example.

    1. Great example.

      In the end: who decides what answers are good vs. bad, accurate vs. inaccurate and appropriate vs. inappropriate?
      It doesn’t work well when left up to users. And it tends to lose character when automated.

      I am curious to see how Quora will handle this dichotomy.

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  25. Lucretia Pruitt Friday, January 7, 2011

    Ohhh.
    “Instructing users in the proper conduct” so makes me sound like the Mary Poppins or Emily Post of Quora. But I suppose I totally deserve that.

    It is an interesting lesson that Quora is not quite like any other site. I wrote a frustrated post with language that got more than a bit ranty and not a little school-marmish. If you know me like most of my followers (then) did? You’d probably have shrugged off the tone, taken anything useful from the post, and moved on.
    But quite suddenly, the majority of the people reading that post had never run across me before. Some were existing users who found it resonated with their own frustrations. Some were new users who apparently didn’t hear or didn’t care about my tone – they just got something out of it. Some, I’m afraid, heard only the tone. Those whom it offended? I’m deeply sorry. It’s not an official post, nor one I would expect represents the quality that *is* on Quora.

    But it brought to light a dilemma that is uniquely Quora’s: if hundreds of people upvote something you wrote, is it disingenuous to then edit it substantially? You have the ability, but would you be happy finding you endorsed something only to have it changed after the fact?

    It will be interesting to see how that pans out. I plan on asking Quora what they think.

    Kudos to Adam, Charlie, the Quora team and community for working so hard to keep up the value.

    1. Thanks, Lucretia — for what it’s worth, I thought your post had far more value to it than some others did, despite the somewhat school-marmish tone, and it was clear that your intentions were good. Thanks for the comment.

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  28. Quora has got a promising start, i wish they follow the their quality guiltlessness. I feel only LinkedIn Q n A gets some useful questions and is less of spam.

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